Top 3 diseases in the 21st century
20-04-2020 • Nerd • by Sofia, from Norway
On an average there are 56 million deaths that take place in a year. But do we know from what these people died from. Off course people die from inevitable aging, but from what else?

I think you heard about a lot of diseases: cancer, tuberculosis, AIDS and HIV, diabetes, pulmonary diseases, bacterial infections and etc. The list goes on and on, but you will ask "In a world like ours, what are the most common diseases and why?" In this article we will figure out what are the most common diseases in the world, why do we have them and what ways we have to cure them?
Circulatory diseases (18 million die every year)

Circulatory diseases are the diseases that affect our circulatory system. The circulatory system includes the heart and blood vessels. This system helps our body to carry oxygen, nutrients, hormones and other very important components to help our body function. Circulatory diseases affect the blood vessels pump, so the body starts to not get enough "food" and that can lead to major problems with heath.

The most common Circulatory diseases are:
  1. Coronary artery Diseases is characterized by atherosclerotic plague formation in the coronary arteries and underlies ischemic heart diseases, the leading cause of death worldwide.
  2. Strokes, medical emergency that happens when the blood flow to your brain is interrupted. Without blood, your brain cells start to die. This can cause serious symptoms, lasting disability and even death.
  3. Heart attack is the death of a segment of heart muscle caused by a loss of blood supply. The blood is usually cut off when an artery supplying the heart muscle is blocked by a blood clot.
Risk factors of the CD are overweight, physical inactivity, unhealthy eating, and smoking tobacco.

Treatments: Usually treatment for CD involves lifestyle changes, if necessary, drugs or medicine. Lifestyle changes like:

1) Quit smoking,

2) Eat healthy foods

3) Exercise regularly

4) Lose weight and reduce stress
Cancer (10 million die every year)

Cancer is the second biggest disease in the world. There most then 100 types of cancer. Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body. Cancer develops when the body's normal control mechanism stops working. Old cells do not die and instead grow out of control, forming new, abnormal cells. These extra cells may form a mass of tissue, called a tumor. Some cancer do not form tumors.

Risk Factors: We have a lot of factors that can cause Cancer. Cancer is caused by accumulated damage to genes.
We can put cancer risk factors into four groups.

1) Biological or internal factors, such as age, gender, inherited genetic defects and skin type.

2) Environmental exposure, for instance to random and UV radiation, bacteria, and fine particulate matter.

3) Occupational risk factors, including carcinogens such as many chemicals, radioactive materials and asbestos

4) Lifestyle-related factors.

Treatments: In the world we do not have a medicine that will cure the diseases completely, but we have innovations that in 50+ percent will cure cancer (surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, bone marrow transplant, immunotherapy, hormone Therapy, targeted drug therapy, cryoablation, radiofrequency ablation, clinical trials).
Diabetes (4,8 million die every year)

Diabetes is a disease that occurs when your blood glucose, also called blood sugar, is too high. Blood glucose is our main source of energy and comes from the food you eat. Insulin, a hormone made by the pancreas, helps glucose from food get into your cells to be used energy. Sometimes our body doesn't make enough-or any- insulin or doesn't use insulin well. Glucose then stays in your blood and doesn't reach your cells.

Risk Factors: Diabetes is a chronic disease that occurs because the body is unable to use blood sugar. The main risks are:
- Lack of insulin
- Genes and family history
- Gestational diabetes
- Age
- Obesity
- Poor diet and lifestyle
- Hormonal conditions
- Lack of exercise,
- Viral or bacterial infection

Treatments: There is no cure for diabetes, but it can go into remission. People can manage it with medication and lifestyle changes.
Today we talked about main diseases in the 21st century. We found that the main diseases are Circulatory diseases, Cancer, Diabetes, Tuberculosis and HIV and AIDS. Now we know that only because of these 5 diseases around 34 million people die every year, also we know the treatments for them and how can we get those diseases. I hope my article will educate other teenagers or even prevent those diseases among younger generation.